2.3 Process Hazard Analysis
29 CFR 1910.119 (e)
The employer shall perform29 CFR 1910.119 (e) analysis (hazard evaluation) on processes
an initial process hazard
covered by this standard. The process hazard analysis shall be appropriate to the complexity of the
process and shall identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved in the process. Employers shall
determine and document the priority order for conducting process hazard analyses based on a rationale
which includes such considerations as extent of the process hazards, number of potentially affected
employees, age of the process, and operating history of the process. The process hazard analysis shall
be completed prior to process startup.
The employer shall use one or more of the following methodologies that are appropriate to determine and
evaluate the hazards of the process being analyzed.
Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA);
Fault Tree Analysis; or
An appropriate equivalent methodology.
The process hazard analysis shall address:
The hazards of the process;
The identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for catastrophic consequences
in the workplace;
Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and their interrelationships such as
appropriate application of detection methodologies to provide early warning of releases. (Acceptable
detection methods might include process monitoring and control instrumentation with alarms, and
detection hardware such as hydrocarbon sensors.);
Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls;
Human factors; and
A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health effects of failure of controls on
employees in the workplace.
(4) The process hazard analysis shall be performed by a team with expertise in engineering and process operations,
and the team shall include at least one employee who has experience and knowledge specific to the process
being evaluated. Also, one member of the team must be knowledgeable in the specific process hazard analysis
methodology being used.
(5) The employer shall establish a system to promptly address the team's findings and recommendations; assure
that the recommendations are resolved in a timely manner and that the resolution is documented; document
what actions are to be taken; complete actions as soon as possible; develop a written schedule of when these
actions are to be completed; communicate the actions to operating, maintenance and other employees whose
work assignments are in the process and who may be affected by the recommendations or actions.