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Beta Energy - doe-hdbk-1105-2002_reaffirm20070028
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Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities - index
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By-Product of Reactor Sources - doe-hdbk-1105-2002_reaffirm20070030


DOE-HDBK-1105-2002
Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities
Instructor's Guide
Notes
G. Fusion
H + 1 H → 3He + 1 n
2
2
1
2
0
1 mev per fusion
Fusion is the process of two nuclei joining
together. The energy source in most stars is
Show OT 21
nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes.
H + 1 H → 4He + 1 n
3
2
1
2
0
17 mev per fusion
Show OT 22
SOURCES AND USES OF TRITIUM
Show OT 23
How is tritium produced and what is it used for?
Modes of production:
A. Sources of Tritium
1. The nitrogen nucleus captures
There are three primary sources of tritium in
a neutron and decays to tritium
our environment. Tritium is present in our
and carbon.
environment from both man-made and natural
sources as discussed below. Natural tritium is
14
N + 1 n yields
7
0
indistinguishable from man-made tritium.
3
12
H+
C
1
6
1.
Natural Sources
Tritium occurs naturally. It is formed by
the reactions between cosmic rays and the
nitrogen in the upper atmosphere.
Nitrogen makes up 80% of the earths
atmosphere.
2
2
H + 1 H yields
1
Cosmic rays generate approximately 4
3
H + 1H
1
1
million curies of tritium per year. With
2. Two hydrogen-2 atoms
tritium being continually produced and at
(deuterium) combine to form
the same time decaying, the natural
tritium and normal hydrogen.
tritium in our environment is about 70
million curies.
13


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