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Gamma and X-Ray External Dose - doe-hdbk-1113-98_reaffirm_2005_040134
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Radiological Safety Trainign for Uranium Facilities
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External Dose Reduction and Control Techniques - doe-hdbk-1113-98_reaffirm_2005_040136


DOE-HDBK-1113-98
Radiological Safety Training for Uranium Facilities
Module 103 External Dose Control
The probability of spontaneous fission is small; therefore exposure is not expected.
However, if fission does occur, such as in a reactor or from experiments, the
neutron radiation is typically contained. Neutron radiation that is not contained is
usually the result of a criticality accident which generates potentially fatal doses of
gamma radiation.
F.
External Dose Measurements
The radiation from uranium that affects external dose includes beta, gamma, X-ray
and neutron irradiation. An effective external exposure control program for uranium
requires a variety of radiation detection instruments that are responsive to these
forms of radiation. Radiation surveys should be performed on a routine basis and
during events, tasks, procedures, or situations that are likely to cause radiological
conditions to change. There are two general categories of measurement used for
external exposure associated with uranium, portable survey instruments and
personnel dosimeters.
Gamma radiation from uranium is normally not the controlling problem. For
example, the contact beta radiation field from depleted uranium is approximately
240 millirem per hour, while the contact gamma radiation field is less than 10
millirem per hour. However, significant gamma fields can exist in areas where large
quantities of uranium are stored, such as a storage area for uranium contaminated
soil. The accuracy and precision of survey instruments used for measurement of
beta radiation fields depend on many factors which must be addressed, such as
energy response and geometry factors. Accordingly, these surveys are typically
conducted by Radiological Control personnel. Neutron fields from enriched
uranium fluoride compounds can also add to this area of concern. Depending on the
magnitude of neutron fields generated, periodic neutron dose rate measurements are
made, typically by Radiological Control personnel.
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