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Gamma and X-Ray External Dose - doe-hdbk-1113-98_reaffirm_2005_040070
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Radiological Safety Trainign for Uranium Facilities
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External Dose Measurements cont'd - doe-hdbk-1113-98_reaffirm_2005_040072


DOE-HDBK-1113-98
Module 103 External Dose Control
Lesson Plan
Instructor's Notes
E.
Neutron External Dose
Show OT-28
As uranium is processed in the fuel cycle, it is often
chemically bonded to fluorine to create compounds
such as UF4 and UF6. When uranium atoms in these
compounds decay, they emit alpha particles that are
sometimes captured by the neighboring fluorine
atoms. The resulting atom is unstable and may emit
a neutron to gain back its stability. The neutrons
emitted can result in neutron radiation fields
between 0.5 and 4 mrem/h.
The probability of spontaneous fission is small;
therefore exposure is not expected. However, if
fission does occur, such as in a reactor or from
experiments, the neutron radiation is typically
contained. Neutron radiation that is not contained is
usually the result of a criticality accident, which
generates potentially fatal doses of gamma radiation.
F.
External Dose Measurements
The radiation from uranium that affects external
dose includes beta, gamma, X-ray and neutron
irradiation. An effective external exposure control
program for uranium requires a variety of radiation
detection instruments that are responsive to these
forms of radiation. Radiation surveys should be
performed on a routine basis and during events,
tasks, procedures, or situations that are likely to
cause radiological conditions to change. There are
two general categories of measurement used for
external exposure associated with uranium, portable
survey instruments and personnel dosimeters.
35


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