PART 2 Release and Transportation of Radioactive Material
421 Release to Controlled Areas
Once materials and equipment have entered radiological areas controlled for surface contamination or airborne
radioactivity, comprehensive and time-consuming evaluations of the potential for contamination are required prior to
releasing the material or equipment to controlled areas. Likewise, exposure of certain materials and equipment to a beam
of neutrons or other particles produced in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator may result in activation of that material
or equipment, resulting in the creation of radioactive material requiring controlled use, storage, and disposal. The need
for evaluation of the radiological characteristics of these materials and equipment and implementation of appropriate
controls provides substantial impetus for implementation of measures to limit the amount of material and equipment that
enters radiological areas and to prevent contamination or activation of materials and equipment that do enter these areas.
Accessible surfaces of material or equipment that has entered contamination, high contamination, or airborne
radioactivity areas shall be surveyed prior to release from these areas to controlled areas [see 835.1101(a)].
Guidance for conducting these surveys is provided in the footnotes to Table 2-2.
If an assessment of the prior use of the material or equipment indicates that inaccessible surfaces are not likely to be
contaminated in excess of applicable limits, a complete survey of accessible surfaces and documentation of the
assessment may be an appropriate basis to release materials to the controlled area [see 835.1101(a)(2)].
If an assessment of the prior use of the material or equipment indicates that inaccessible surfaces are likely to be
contaminated to levels in excess of the Table 2-2 values, then the material shall not be released from the
radiological area, except as permitted under Article 421.5 or 421.6 [see 835.1101(a)(2)]. If it is necessary to release
the material or equipment from the radiological area, the material or equipment should be disassembled to the
extent necessary to perform adequate surveys.
Removable contamination levels shall be less than Table 2-2 values prior to releasing material and equipment for
unrestricted use in controlled areas [see 835.1101(a)(1) & (a)(2)].
Material and equipment with fixed contamination levels that exceed the total contamination values specified in
Table 2-2, and removable contamination levels less than Table 2-2 values, may be released for restricted use in
controlled areas outside of radiological areas [see 835.1101(c) & (c)(1)]. The material or equipment shall be
routinely monitored and clearly marked or labeled to alert individuals to the contaminated status [see
835.1101(c)(2)]. Written procedures should be developed to establish requirements for monitoring of the material
or equipment and surrounding areas, control of access to these areas, authorized uses of the material or equipment,
and contingency plans for spread of radioactive contamination.
Material and equipment with total or removable contamination levels exceeding Table 2-2 values may be moved on
site from one radiological area to another if appropriate monitoring is performed and appropriate controls are
established and implemented [see 835.1101(b)]. These controls should include provisions for containment to the
extent practicable, labeling in accordance with Article 412, monitoring and control of the transfer route and
participating individuals, and control of spills.