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DOE-STD-1098-99
Radiological Control
Conduct of Radiological Work
June 2004
PART 6 Special Applications
This Part provides supplemental information to augment the basic requirements of the Standard. Articles 361 through
365 provide information to be used in developing the site-specific radiological control manual. Written guidance and
requirements contained within DOE documents, consensus standards, or Federal regulations that delineate specifics for
each application are referenced.
Articles 361 through 363 of this Part are applicable to those facilities where the majority of the work or operations
involve the subject radionuclide as the significant source term. This Part is not intended to apply to facilities that use the
subject radionuclides in limited or tracer amounts, such as analytical laboratories.
361 Plutonium Operations
There is the perception that exposure to small quantities of plutonium presents greater risk than exposure to other
radionuclides. Low levels of plutonium in the body are difficult to measure and biological removal processes for
plutonium are slow. For these reasons:
1.
Primary emphasis shall be placed on engineered features to contain plutonium and to prevent airborne and surface
contamination [see 835.1001(a)].
2.
In addition to the provisions of this Standard, guidance contained in the document, DOE-STD-1128-98, Guide to
Good Practices For Occupational Radiation Protection in Plutonium Facilities, Reaffirmation with Errata (May
2003) should be considered in preparing the site-specific radiological control manual for plutonium operations.
This standard provides specific guidance related to dosimetry, radiological monitoring, instrumentation,
contamination control, and applicable radiological control procedures.
362 Uranium Operations
Natural, depleted, and low-enriched uranium are unusual in that their chemical toxicity is more limiting in the human
body than their radioactivity. Also, processed uranium sometimes contains transuranic and other radionuclides from
recycled materials.
For these reasons, in addition to the provisions of this Standard, the guidance contained in DOE-STD-1136-2000,
Guide of Good Practice for Occupational Radiological Protection in Uranium Facilities, Change Notice No. 3,
(December, 2001) should be considered in preparing the site-specific radiological control manual for uranium operations.
This manual provides specific guidance related to management controls, radiological monitoring, contamination control,
and internal and external exposure controls.
363 Tritium Operations
The following characteristics of tritium require consideration in the implementation of the radiological control program at
tritium facilities:
1.
Tritium emits low energy beta particles which cannot be monitored using external dosimeters, consequently
requiring the use of bioassay measurements to evaluate worker dose.
2.
Worker exposure to tritium as water vapor causes a much greater dose than exposure to elemental tritium gas.
3.
Normal personnel frisking techniques are ineffective for tritium. Consequently, a high reliance is placed on worker
bioassay and routine contamination and air monitoring programs.
3-23


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