Conduct of Radiological Work
Due to its ability to permeate substances which it contacts, including human skin, tritium is difficult to contain.
Special attention should be directed to the selection of personal protective equipment and clothing.
For the above reasons, guidance contained in DOE-HDBK-1079-94, Primer on Tritium Safe Handling Practices, should
be considered in preparing the site-specific radiological control manual for tritium operations. This handbook provides
specific guidance related to internal dosimetry, contamination and air monitoring, tritium containment practices and
techniques, and personal protective equipment and clothing selection.
364 Accelerator Operations
Special considerations associated with accelerator facilities include the presence of extremely high dose rates, high
energy and heavy particles, the generation of activation products, and detection and monitoring difficulties associated
with pulsed or high energy radiation. For these reasons:
In addition to the provisions of this Standard, guidance contained in the document, DOE-HDBK-1108-2002,
Radiological Safety Training for Accelerator Facilities, should be considered in preparing the site-specific
radiological control manual for accelerator operations. This manual provides specific guidance related to
radiological monitoring, dosimetry, shielding design, use of interlocks, and procedures and administrative controls.
Consideration should be given to the information provided in DOE O 420.2A ( Safety of Accelerator Facilities, in
preparing the site-specific radiological control manual .
Safety devices and interlocks that are necessary to meet the high radiation area control requirements of 10 CFR
835.501 shall be operational prior to and during operation of a beam [see 835.501(b)]. Operational status should
be verified by testing. Safety divides and interlocks should be fail-safe.
365 Radiation Generating Devices
Special considerations associated with the use of radiation generating devices include the presence of extremely high
dose rates and the potential for uncontrolled exposures. Operation of these devices requires stringent physical and
administrative controls to prevent overexposure to operating and support personnel and those in adjacent work areas.
Site-specific procedures should contain the following provisions for applicable types of radiation generating devices:
ANSI N43.3, American National Standard for General Radiation Safety-Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray
and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV, establishes acceptable guidelines for operations
involving the irradiation of materials.
The provisions of ANSI N43.2 entitled, Radiation Safety for X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Analysis
Equipment, shall be adhered to for operations involving the following devices [see DOE 5480.4.2.d]:
Analytical diffraction and fluorescence
Sealed source irradiators used for diffraction studies.
Line management, in conjunction with the radiological control organization, should establish the radiological
control requirements for incidental X-ray devices such as electron microscopes and electron beam welders.
Devices for medical use should be registered with the appropriate regulatory agency.
Control requirements for radiographic devices include the following: