Design criteria are established to provide technical direction and guidance for the planning and
designing of new facilities and of facility additions and alterations, and the development of
specifications for building acquisitions. While there is little probability that large new plutonium
facilities will be constructed, there may be significant modification to existing facilities.
Additionally, 10 CFR 835 Subpart K Design and Control also provides requirements for the
design of radiological facilities.
This appendix provides guidance in the design of plutonium facilities. This guidance should be
used to supplement the guidance of the DOE Standard, Radiological Control, Ch. 1. (DOE, 2004),
and other DOE Orders and standards. Consideration and implementation of certain design
features may be necessary to ensure meeting criteria. Other safety areas such as industrial hygiene
and industrial safety are beyond the scope of this manual and are not specifically included;
however, Federal and state regulations applicable to those disciplines must also be met. Further,
DOE Policy 450.4 Safety Management System Policy (DOE, 1996d) provides the safety
management system specifications for DOE facilities.
Radiation protection in nuclear facilities is usually achieved by a mixture of engineered and
administrative safeguards. A building equipped with a maximum of engineered safeguards and a
minimum of administrative controls should be more economical to operate than one with the
reverse characteristics. Radiation-protection efforts may be significantly enhanced by the
incorporation of the appropriate design features rather than relying on administrative controls.
However, in many instances, the designer and the health physicist must balance competing
objectives to attain the most cost-effective design with a high degree of safety and reliability. In
designing a new facility, all of the necessary physical features can be included; however, in an old
facility it may be physically or economically impossible to meet all of the requirements.
The guidance presented relates to physical safety and control systems only; guidance related to
administrative control is not included. The phrase "safety and control systems" is used here to
control. In addition to the radiation-protection requirements, facilities that contain more than 450
grams of plutonium are subject to criticality safety requirements, which include the need for a
criticality alarm system and criticality dosimeters. Guidance on the security and safeguards of
nuclear material (including prevention of theft or diversion) is not included but also must be
considered in the design of the facility.
The following sections address the applicable standards and guides, design objectives, structural
guidance, building layout, service and utility systems, and special monitoring, safety, and other
systems required for the design of a plutonium facility.
C.1 APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND GUIDES
The following DOE standards may also be useful:
DOE-STD-1021-93 Natural Phenomena Hazards Performance Categorization
Guidelines for Structures, Systems, and Components. (DOE, 1993b)
DOE-STD-1020-2002 Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for
Department of Energy Facilities. (DOE, 2002b)