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Quality Assurance - doe-std-1128-98_ch10077
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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DOE-STD-1128-98
3.8.5
Attributes of Effective Review and Audit
Evaluation of the effectiveness of an ALARA program requires both reviews and
auditing. The reviews will include detailed examination of the written ALARA
program plan and the records of ALARA activities. The objectives in such reviews
are to find if the written plan is being followed, and what is working or not working
well. Such reviews can be performed adequately by either a knowledgeable
member of the facility staff or an equally knowledgeable outsider. The written
report of a review should be directed to a member of management who is
responsible for implementation of the ALARA program.
Audits are best performed by an outside health physicist who is sufficiently
knowledgeable about work with plutonium and its radiological characteristics that
he/she knows where to look for problems and can make appropriate evaluations
and recommendations. He should not only examine the ALARA program plan and
records, but should also visit the working areas and laboratories in the facility, with
a knowledgeable escort who can answer questions about activities and conditions
in the facility.
There is nothing really unique in ALARA programs at plutonium facilities,
compared with facilities handling other kinds of radioactive materials. However,
the radioactivity of plutonium, its potential for criticality, and its relatively high
radiotoxicity require somewhat more meticulous surveillance and control than
many other radionuclides. Therefore, the detail in ALARA programs for plutonium
facilities is likely to be somewhat greater than would be found in ALARA
programs for many other facilities.
In any plutonium facility, it is highly desirable to have well-structured ALARA
teams in each building or subunit of the facility. Facility goals are to be developed
by the facility ALARA teams. Each facility ALARA team chairperson meets with
the facility team, and together they develop the calendar-year ALARA goals for
their facility. The team chairperson prepares the draft goal report for review by the
facility ALARA team and the ALARA Program Office (APO) of the facility. After
the draft goals are reviewed, they are returned to the facility team chairperson. The
final goal report is then submitted to the facility manager for signature. The signed
copy is submitted to the APO to be included in the annual ALARA goal report to
DOE. All facility-specific goals should be categorized and reported using the
facility-specified format and should include the following:
Exposure Reduction. Goals listed under exposure reduction may reflect
occupational or nonoccupational exposure reduction. Exposure to radiological
hazards or nonradiological hazards are relevant. Specific jobs for which
exposure reduction plans have been developed should be covered in this
section. Exposure may be reduced by reducing other hazards that contribute to
the difficulty of performing work in radiological areas. For example, reducing
noise, reducing heat stress conditions, or improving lighting may facilitate the
completion and accuracy of work performed in radiological areas and, thus,
reduce exposure. Such opportunities for exposure reduction should be carefully
evaluated and appropriate ALARA goals established to make the most of these
opportunities.
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