C.4 BUILDING LAYOUT
Building layout is extremely important in the operation of a plutonium facility. Improper or
poor layout can lead to operational difficulties and in some instances can contribute to the
development of abnormal situations that may affect personnel safety, result in unnecessary
exposure to the worker and the public, and/or increase the cost of operating the facility.
Normally, three areas are involved in the overall building layout. These areas may be
-- The process area, where plutonium or other radioactive or hazardous materials are
used, handled, or stored;
-- the controlled area, which is normally free of radioactive material but could potentially
become contaminated; and
-- the uncontrolled area, which includes all areas where no radioactive materials are
permitted and radiological controls normally are not necessary (e.g., offices and
lunchrooms). The terms controlled area and uncontrolled area defined above refer to
radiologically controlled and uncontrolled areas. These terms are not to be confused
with the formal definitions of controlled and uncontrolled areas related to safeguards
and security concerns.
The following objectives should be achieved in the design layout of the facility:
-- Planned radiation exposures to personnel shall be within the prescribed limits
of 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE, 1998a). 10 CFR
835.1002 contains requirements for ALARA design objectives for the design
of new facilities or the modification of old facilities.
-- The planned or unintentional release of radioactive materials from the facility
should be confined to the limits of DOE Order 5400.5, Ch. 2 (DOE, 1993c),
and should be ALARA.
General Design Criteria
All planned processing, research and development (R&D), scrap- and waste-
handling, analytical, storage, shipping, and receiving operations should be
accommodated. Receiving operations that involve removal of radioactive material
from protective shipping containers should be performed in a handling area that has
provisions for confinement.
Real-time or near real-time accountability systems should be incorporated if
The possibility of operating with multi-shifts per day should be taken into account
in allocating space for personnel support facilities and for any special equipment
that might be required to support multi-shift operations.