220.127.116.11 Contamination Surveys of the Workplace
The radiation monitoring program should include documented survey
procedures, a system for maintaining survey results, and contamination
control limits for "fixed" and "removable" contamination. The results of
contamination surveys should be reported in activity per area (e.g., dpm/100
cm2) except for large-area swipes and swipes of very small items. This
permits interpretation of the recorded data without requiring knowledge of
instrument efficiency or geometry.
All workplaces should be monitored for contamination levels on a regularly
scheduled basis. The frequency of such surveys will depend on the potential
for dispersion of the radioactive material. As a minimum, all gloves, work
surfaces, floors, equipment, etc., within the workplace should be surveyed
according to the frequencies listed in the DOE standard, Radiological
Control, Ch. 1. (2004).
The change room and other support facilities within the controlled area
should be surveyed for contamination daily. Continuous air monitors, survey
instruments at step-off pads, and hand and shoe counters should be
functionally tested daily or once per shift in support of the weekly and
monthly surveys. These frequent surveys are also part of the routine
surveillance program and permit immediate follow-up if low-level
contamination is detected to minimize the potential for major incidents.
Some fixtures and support areas outside the controlled area, such as door
knobs and telephones of adjacent offices and the lunchroom, should also be
surveyed daily. Other support areas should be surveyed monthly. If routine
survey results detect any contamination in a given area, more detailed
surveys must be performed to determine the extent of the contamination. An
investigation should be initiated to determine the source of the contamination
and the cause.
To preclude the possibility that contaminated waste would be disposed of as
ordinary waste, (1) all process and controlled area waste should be
considered contaminated, and (2) mechanisms should be established that
prevent the mixing of contaminated and noncontaminated waste.
18.104.22.168 Release Surveys
For transuranic radionuclides, the contamination level (fixed and removable)
at which surfaces are considered contaminated are listed in Appendix D of 10
CFR 835 (DOE 1993c). That document also specifies the criteria for the
release of materials and equipment to Controlled Areas.