Quantcast Criticality Accident Dosimetry cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10178


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Criticality Accident Dosimetry - doe-std-1128-98_ch10176
DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
Criticality Accident Dosimetry cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10179

The criticality accident program should contain the following items:
a method and procedure to conduct an initial screening of individuals
involved in a nuclear accident to determine whether significant exposures
to radiation occurred (10 CFR 835.1304(b)(1))
methods, procedures, and equipment for obtaining and analyzing biological
materials (including 24Na activity from blood samples and 32P activity in
the hair)(10 CFR 835.1304(b)(2)), as well as metal coins, jewelry, and
articles of apparel that may have become activated from neutrons
a system of fixed dosimeters (i.e., NADs) (10 CFR 835.1304b(3)) capable
of furnishing estimated radiation dose within an accuracy of 25% and the
approximate neutron spectrum at the installed locations to allow
conversion from rad to rem
an operating range for the fixed dosimeters' neutron component 10 rad to
10,000 rad
measurement capabilities for the fixed dosimeters' gamma ray component
of fission gamma rays in the presence of neutrons with an accuracy of
20%, and an operating range for the gamma component operating range
extending from 10 rad to 10,000 rad
PNADs capable of furnishing sufficient information to determine neutron
and gamma dose with an accuracy of 25% over a range of 10 rad to 1000
rad without dependence upon fixed NAD data
a radiological counting laboratory with the methodology, analytical
procedures, and quality assurance program in place to count the activated
samples from the criticality accident and provide results quickly
counting of activities in persons with significant exposures to assess the
activation products in the body if a whole body counter is available (this is
one of the more accurate methods for dose estimation)
a health physicist designated to coordinate and evaluate the dosimetry
information and provide dose estimates shortly after the accident
a quality assurance program in place to help assure the accuracy and
validity of the dosimetry results.
As mentioned in Section 6.1, the concept of dose equivalent was used to quantify
exposures to different radiations. The quality factors used to determine dose
equivalent are based on stochastic effects, primarily cancer induction some years
later. But the doses in criticality accidents are typically so large that acute
symptoms, including death, may occur within relatively short times, and quality
factors are usually not applicable. For this reason, it is usually more appropriate
to determine absorbed dose rather than dose equivalent if a person receives more
than about 25 rem. These absorbed dose estimates to the torso are much more
important for triage and treatment considerations.

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