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Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Requirements - doe-std-1128-98_ch10253
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10255


DOE-STD-1128-98
For some operations, periodic surface flushing with water may be adequate
to maintain acceptable contamination levels. Precautions should ensure
control and collection of run-off water so that material may be recovered
and waste water analyzed before discharge. Depending upon which isotope
of plutonium is involved, geometrically safe containers may be required for
collecting and holding the liquid.
Depending upon the physical and chemical form of the plutonium and the
type of surface, plutonium may become imbedded in the surface. Removal
of embedded material may require physical abrasion, such as scabbling,
grinding, sand blasting, or chipping, or it may be accomplished using
chemical etching techniques. If the surface is porous, complete
replacement could be necessary. The use of high-pressure water
(hydroblasting) has been quite successful for metal and concrete surfaces.
Ultrasonic cleaning techniques (electropolishing) or chemical baths may be
useful for decontamination of high-cost items if the chemicals used are
compatible with the material to be cleaned.
A description of different decontamination techniques is found in
DOE/EV/10128-1, DOE Decommissioning Handbook (DOE, 1980), and
publications by Allen (1985) and the Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI, 1989). The DOE Decommissioning Handbook also includes
guidance on decontamination techniques, assessment of environmental
impacts, disposition of wastes, and preparation of decommissioning cost
estimates.
10.5 DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE
Considerable experience has been gained in D&D of commercial plutonium facilities, as
discussed in Hoovler et al. (1986), Denero et al. (1984), and Adams et al. (1982). Hoovler
et al. (1986) discuss the decommissioning programs carried out at two Babcock and Wilcox
buildings in Lynchburg, Virginia, which housed plutonium/uranium fuel development
laboratories. They include information on decommissioning and quality assurance plans,
conducting D&D work, performing radiological surveys before and after D&D work, and
disposing of the waste. Denero et al. (1984) discuss the D&D of the Westinghouse Nuclear
Fuel Facility at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. They describe the facility and its operations,
nondestructive assay techniques, equipment required for dismantling and packaging the
waste, and management of the TRU waste. Adams et al. (1982) discuss the complete D&D
of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick,
Pennsylvania, site. The report describes the D&D plans, the EA written for the operation,
the quality assurance plan, and the health physics, fire control, and site emergency manuals
written for the operation.
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