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Design Objectives - doe-std-1128-98_ch10293
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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General Design Considerations - doe-std-1128-98_ch10295


DOE-STD-1128-98
In addition, the DOE Standard, Radiological Control, Ch. 1. (DOE, 2004) provides the
following design considerations:
-- Individual worker dose should be ALARA and less than 500 mrem/y;
-- discharges of radioactive liquid to the environment are covered by the provisions of
DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE, 1993c) and should not degrade the groundwater;
-- control of contamination should be achieved by containment of radioactive material;
-- efficiency of maintenance, decontamination and operations should be maximized;
-- components should be selected to minimize the buildup of radioactivity;
-- support facilities should be provided for donning and removal of protective clothing
and for personnel monitoring, where appropriate; and
-- a neutron quality factor of 20 should be used for design purposes.
The DOE Standard, Radiological Control, also states that facilities currently under
construction should be evaluated and the above criteria applied where practicable. The
manual strongly discourages locating lunch rooms or eating areas, restrooms, drinking
fountains, showers and similar facilities and devices and office spaces within Radiation
Areas, High and Very High Radiation Areas, Contamination and High Contamination
Areas, Airborne Radioactivity Areas, Radioactive Material Areas, or and Radiological
Buffer Areas.
The specific facility design chosen depends on the quantity and form of plutonium that will
be used. Some simple processes involving very small quantities of unsealed plutonium can
be carried out safely in well-designed and adequately filtered open-faced hoods such as
those found in a general radiochemistry facility. The specific quantity that can be handled
in this manner depends on the complexity of the process and the specific form of the
material. Any use of unsealed plutonium should be reviewed by the facility's safety
personnel, and the feasibility of the proposed use should be established based on the form
of the material to be used, the work to be performed, and the engineered and administrative
controls to be employed. Based on experience, if the quantity of plutonium is 100 mg or
more, the process should be performed in a plutonium facility.
The application of these guidelines to specific proposals for the modification of existing
facilities or the construction of new facilities requires that judgments be made based on
detailed information about the facility, its use, quantities of plutonium involved, operations
to be performed, degree of need for operating continuity during and/or after postulated
accidents, and the potential impact on surrounding facilities and the public. For some
facility modifications, the engineering criteria outlined here may be modified or reduced if
administrative requirements are increased. A cost-benefit analysis should be performed to
make this decision.
The primary goal of the design objectives is to keep the plutonium confined in its intended
place (i.e., capsule, hood, glove box, etc.), both during normal operations and under
accident conditions. Of equal importance is consideration of the human factors in design
that promote efficiency and ease of operation. Additional design criteria may be necessary
C-3


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