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Operational Controls - doe-std-1128-98_ch10219
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Design Objectives - doe-std-1128-98_ch10221


DOE-STD-1128-98
Monitoring is used to determine if current conditions are within expected
parameters and to initiate corrective action if they are not. For monitoring, the
system design should conform to ANSI N42.18, Specification and Performance of
On-site Instrumentation for Continuously Monitoring of Radionuclides in Effluents
(ANSI, 1974b). The choice of the filter medium will depend on the analysis that
will be done on the sample. For samples containing only plutonium particulate, a
non-absorbing filter such as a membrane filter will have the highest efficiency for
alpha counting. In all cases, the final count must be done after any residual radon
has decayed because it will often result in a large amount of alpha on the filter that
is not plutonium. If there are other radionuclides in the waste stream that cannot be
decayed in a reasonable time, either alpha spectroscopy or chemical separation
must be done. Chemical analysis must also be done if there are stable contaminants
of interest such as beryllium or heavy metals. The nature of these procedures is
beyond the scope of this document.
8.2.5
Disposal
Airborne effluents are not stored. Disposal of the airborne effluent, possibly
containing traces of plutonium, is generally arranged by the design of the facility
and the existing air quality permits. Normally, the design of the facility is such that
the method of disposal of the cleaned effluent should be unimportant during normal
operation. However, the facilities are designed to minimize the impact of a filter
failure or operational difficulty that results in a release. Disposal of airborne
effluents is handled at the design, environmental impact assessment, and safety
analysis stages of facility construction. Disposal of secondary waste from air
cleaning is covered in the sections that follow.
8.3
SOLID WASTE
Solid waste will come from all phases of operation and from decommissioning of
plutonium facilities. Because most plutonium solid waste will be TRU (containing more
than 100 nCi/g), disposal in the near future is uncertain. Thus, it is highly desirable to
minimize the generation of solid waste in the design, operation, maintenance, and
decommissioning of plutonium facilities.
8-8


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