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DOE-STD-1128-98
Precautions are necessary if a lab uses an aliquot for analysis and extrapolates the
aliquot result to the total sample. The aliquoting procedure should be tested using
spiked samples to assure that it is representative.
A quality control (QC) verification program should exist for laboratory analyses,
including use of known blank samples and samples spiked with known quantities of
radioactivity. Ideally, the samples should not be distinguishable by the analytical
laboratory from actual worker samples. The number of QC verification samples may
range from 5% to 15% of the total samples processed by a large-volume program; a
small program focused on submittal of special samples following suspected intakes
may have a much higher percentage of controls. An additional QC provision may be
to request the analytical lab to provide results of their in-house QC results for
independent review.
There are no standard or regulatory requirements for bioassay sample chain-of-
custody provisions, nor has there been consensus on their need. Tampering with
samples has not been a widely reported or suspected problem. Site-specific chain-of-
custody requirements should be based on balancing the need with the resources
required to implement them. Some sites have no chain-of-custody requirements
associated with bioassay sample collection. At other sites, a simple seal placed on a
sample container following collection by the subject worker is an effective means of
providing a small degree of chain-of-custody. At the more complex level would be
strict accountability requiring signature of issue, certification of collection, and
signature of submittal.
Procedures describing details of the bioassay program should be documented. These
procedures should include a description of sample collection, analysis, calibration
techniques, QC, biokinetic modeling, and dose calculational methods used.
5.5.3
Fecal Sampling
A fecal sampling program must be designed to ensure worker cooperation, whether
collecting samples at home or in the workplace. Since the frequency of fecal voiding
varies greatly from person to person, the sample collection program must be
adaptable. Flexibility in sample dates is important. It is suggested that when a fecal
sample is required, the worker be provided with a kit and instructed to collect the
sample, noting the date and time of voiding on the sample label. This practice can
reduce the likelihood of unsuccessful samples. If multiple samples are required (for
example, to collect the total early fecal clearance following an acute inhalation
exposure), the worker may be given several kits and told to collect the next several
voidings, noting the date and time of each.
5-21


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