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Distillation - doe-std-1128-98_ch10231
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Table 8.3. Interim Recommendations for Storage of Plutonium Metal and Plutonium Oxide at Department of Energy Facilities


DOE-STD-1128-98
8.4.3.9 Incineration
Incineration is an ideal waste-management technique for combustible
solvents and other liquids that do not yield toxic or hazardous combustion
products. The volume reduction from feed material to ash is usually
outstanding. Incinerators are usually equipped with wet scrubbers,
demisters, and filters to ensure that the effluent released to the environment
is acceptable and ALARA. These features create secondary waste that must
be dealt with, but the disposal efficiency usually makes them well
worthwhile.
8.4.4
Sampling and Monitoring
Sampling and monitoring of liquid waste streams are usually straightforward. Bulk
liquid in tanks must often be mixed, usually with a recirculating pump, before dip
sampling to ensure a representative sample. Liquid effluent streams are often
sampled with a flow-proportional sampler. For on-line monitoring, a small ion
exchange column is used to concentrate ionic contaminants, and a detector is
placed on the column for gamma analysis.
8.4.5
Storage and Disposal
Sanitary liquids and those meeting disposal criteria may be released to the
environment or to sanitary waste treatment systems (sewerage systems). Hazardous
liquid waste may be shipped, with excess absorbent material in compliance with 40
CFR, to a licensed treatment facility. Small quantities of radioactive-contaminated
liquids, such as samples, may be shipped in a similar way, but most liquid waste
must be solidified prior to shipment or disposal. It is preferable to store only solid
waste, as well. The recommendations of Table 8.3 are applicable to the storage of
plutonium-containing liquids as well as solids. In particular, where long-term
storage of plutonium solutions may occur, even within glove boxes, it is advisable
to avoid plastic containers unless one can be certain that the alpha radiation will not
have degraded the container.
8-20


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