Because the dose from intake of long-lived radionuclides like plutonium is
delivered over a period of many years, the dose increment actually received
in any given year is a small fraction of the total dose commitment. The
Introduction to the Emergency Management Guide (DOE, 1997) and related
guidance authorize use of the 5 rem protective action threshold for planning
and hazards assessment purposes when a large fraction of the dose from a
radionuclide mixture will be delivered over a period of years following the
Medical Support. If the potential exists for large intakes of plutonium, the
emergency management program should include specific planning for the
quantification of exposure, diagnosis of health effects, and treatment.
Medical facilities providing emergency medical support should be provided
with references relating to plutonium toxicity and treatment protocols.
Criteria for implementing treatments such as surgical excision of
contaminated tissue, lung lavage, or use of chelating agents should be
discussed with the medical staff and sources of real-time advice and
assistance should be identified.
Recovery and Reentry. The specific properties of the hazardous material do
not significantly affect the content of this program element.
Public Information. The specific properties of the hazardous material do not
significantly affect the content of this program element.
Emergency Facilities and Equipment. Except for instruments and analysis
methods used in consequence assessment, little by way of specialized
facilities and equipment will be required to meet the emergency management
program needs of plutonium facilities. Equipment and analytical techniques
for detection and measurement of plutonium in environmental sample media
should have sufficient sensitivity to measure levels at or below those
corresponding to decision criteria. Whereas larger sample sizes, chemical
processing, or longer counting times may be used to reduce the limit of
detection for routine environmental surveillance, time constraints may dictate
that more sensitive techniques be available to meet the information needs of
Training, Drills and Exercises, Program Administration. The specific
properties of the hazardous material do not significantly affect the content of
these program elements.