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Design Objectives cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10218
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Disposal - doe-std-1128-98_ch10220


DOE-STD-1128-98
The final consideration in the design of air cleaning systems for plutonium
operations is the probability and consequences of accidents. In general, plutonium
air-handling systems are designed so that all probable accidents, including the
failure of a single HEPA filter, do not have measurable consequences offsite. It will
be necessary to design the system for all probable meteorological conditions,
including (for some regions of the country) tornados. The system must also be
designed so that some improbable (but not impossible) events (accidents) have
consequences that are less than catastrophic. For example, the simultaneous failure
of two HEPA filters in series is highly unlikely (without a common cause such as
high differential pressure from an explosion or meteorological event) but facilities
must be designed so that these events are not likely to cause fatalities offsite. The
minimum performance criteria for the air-cleaning systems are dictated by DOE
design criteria. Other design parameters are finalized during the Environmental
Impact and Safety Analysis processes. They will differ from facility to facility.
8.2.2
Operational Controls
Plutonium air-handling systems must be operated within the design safety envelope
of the system, designated by Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). Beyond
that, there are measures that can further reduce the potential for airborne plutonium,
even in glovebox operations. Even within glove boxes, plutonium should be
containerized, preferably doubly encapsulated whenever possible. Spills should be
cleaned up promptly. If rags or tissues are contaminated, they should be bagged as
soon as possible.
8.2.3
Waste Treatments
The principal treatment for cleaning plutonium from air is HEPA filtration. There
are other technologies that can be used for pretreatment, but the most common is
filtration. Electrostatic precipitation, wet scrubbing, demisters to remove moisture,
and other technologies may have specific applications. (Treatment of the HEPA
filters, a solid waste, and the wet scrubber effluent, a liquid waste, are discussed in
Sections 8.3 and 8.4, respectively.)
8.2.4
Sampling and Monitoring
Sampling is the primary method used to achieve a complete and accurate legal
record of releases after they have occurred. The primary requirement for a
particulate air sample of any type is that it be representative of the stream being
measured. This translates into isokinetic sampling in a laminar flow section of the
exhaust duct. The parameters needed to achieve such a sample are given in
numerous references such as the DOE Implementation Guide. Workplace Air
Monitoring (DOE, 1999f), and ANSI N13.1-1969, Guide to Sampling Airborne
Radioactive Materials in Stacks and Ducts (ANSI, 1969b). For sampling, the
analytical methods are the same as those discussed in Chapter 3 of this document
for workplace sampling.
8-7


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