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Internal Dosimetry cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10112
DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
Table 5.1. Urine Bioassy Goals(a) for 239Pu - doe-std-1128-98_ch10114

Performance Capabilities for Internal Exposure Monitoring
Bioassay monitoring programs must be capable of showing compliance with the 5-
rem/year stochastic and 50-rem/year nonstochastic dose limits of 10 CFR 835.202
(DOE, 1998a). 10 CFR 835.402(c) (1) (DOE, 1998a) identifies 100-mrem CEDE
and/or 5 rem CDE to any organ or tissue for all likely intakes as a level above
which workers must participate in a bioassay program. Therefore, ideally, such
bioassay monitoring programs should be capable of detecting those levels. In fact,
this is not technically achievable for most routine plutonium bioassay programs. In
order to meet this requirement, reliance must be placed on workplace monitoring to
identify potential intakes at the time they occur so that special bioassay monitoring
can be initiated. Routine, periodic bioassay measurements have little chance of
detecting a CEDE of 0.1 rem and can even have difficulty showing compliance
with dose limits.
Performance capabilities for bioassay and internal dosimetry programs can be
expressed as the minimum detectable dose, based on some combination of
minimum detectable activity and frequency of measurement or time post-intake at
which the measurement is made. The term "minimum detectable dose" is preferred
over any variants of the occasionally encountered terms "dose-missed" or
"potentially undetected dose," which were usually defined as the same thing. The
connotation of the latter terms is that of an actual intake which was not detected,
whereas the intent was to define a measure of program sensitivity to doses that
might have gone undetected had an intake occurred. The preferred term" minimum
detectable dose" (MDD) ties the concept to the recognized terminology of
minimum detectable activity (MDA).
The MDD for a bioassay monitoring program must meet the aforementioned dose
limit requirements of 10 CFR 835.202. A design goal of 100-mrem CEDE from all
intakes of similar nuclides in a year is desirable but unrealistic for a routine
program. To meet these requirements, bioassay programs should have
measurement sensitivities (i.e., MDAs for bioassay measurements) established
based on the material to which workers might be exposed. Examples of such
sensitivities are given in Tables 5.1 and 5.2 for pure 239Pu monitored by urinalysis
and fecal analysis, respectively. Table 5.3 provides an example of the 241Am
sensitivity required for monitoring a mixture of weapons-grade plutonium, aged 5
years for ingrowth at time of intake. These tables illustrate the difficulty in relying
on routine bioassay to demonstrate compliance with the limits and design goal.

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