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Plutonium Hydride - doe-std-1128-98_ch10029
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Modes of Entry into the Body - doe-std-1128-98_ch10031


DOE-STD-1128-98
2.3.3.5 Plutonium Chlorides
Chloride salts, which are a very important category of residues, are
byproducts of pyrochemical operations. Pyrochemical chloride-based
operations currently in use include:
-- DOR
-- electrorefining (ER)
-- molten salt extraction (MSE)
-- pyroredox.
Treatment of chloride-based residues is especially challenging for
aqueous recovery techniques because of corrosion problems with
stainless steel equipment. At the LANL site, Kynar-lined gloveboxes
were to be installed to evaluate their behavior in production-scale
operations. The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has also had extensive
experience in aqueous recovery of plutonium from chloride-based
residues (Muscatello et al., 1986a, 1986b, 1987). Cesium
chloroplutonate, Cs2PuCl6, was proposed as a primary analytical
standard due to its stability to alpha radiolysis and may now have
application as a storage form. It was first prepared by Anderson
(1949). There is no evidence of water absorption at relative
humidities as high as 53% (Miner et al., 1963). After 64 days at 90%
relative humidity, Cs2PuCl6 forms a paste.
2.3.3.6 Plutonium Fuels
Plutonium and plutonium-uranium fuel mixtures were developed and
tested in experimental reactors to prove the feasibility of operating
power reactors. These fuels included both liquids and solids
consisting of alloys and ceramic mixtures. Wick (1967) and
Schneider and Roepenack (1986) provide comprehensive lists of
fuels. Because of their pyrophoric nature, some of these alloys and
compounds require special care and handling when exposed to
reactive liquids or gases.
2.4
RADIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON HUMANS
The radiobiological properties of plutonium and other transuranic (TRU) elements
are known primarily from experiments performed on rats, dogs, baboons, and rabbits.
Human data on plutonium are limited. Reviews of the vast literature on plutonium
include Hodge et al. (1973); ICRP 19 (1972); ICRP 30, Part 1 (1979); ICRP 48
(1986); ICRP 30, Part 4 (1988b); and Liverman et al. (1974). ICRP 30, Part 1 (1979)
and ICRP 48 (1986) report different gastrointestinal (GI) absorption and
biodistribution parameters. The committed effective dose equivalents, calculated
using the models of the two publications, will differ by about 10%, with
2-16


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