Provisions should be made for the quick and easy removal of shielding and
insulation that cover areas where maintenance or inspection are necessary
activities. Equipment should be designed to permit visual inspection wherever
Passageways should have adequate dimensions for the movement, repair,
installation, or removal of proposed or anticipated equipment.
Ergonomic factors should be considered in the selection and placement of
equipment components to facilitate operation and maintenance.
In any area where personnel may wear protective clothing or use breathing-air
systems, the use of sharp equipment projections, which could tear clothing or
breathing-air system hoses or cause wounds should be avoided.
Water-collection systems should be provided for water runoff from any controlled
area. Water from firefighting activities should be considered. The collection
systems should be designed to prevent nuclear criticality, to confine radioactive
materials, and to facilitate sampling and volume determinations of waste liquids
Area drainage and collection systems should be designed to minimize the spread of
radioactive contamination, especially to areas occupied by personnel.
Curbs should be constructed around all areas that house tanks or equipment that
contains contaminated liquids to limit the potential spread of liquids.
Noncombustible and heat-resistant materials should be used in radiation areas that
are vital to the control of radioactive materials and in equipment that is necessary
for the operation of radiological safety systems. These materials should be resistant
to radiation damage and should not release toxic or hazardous by-products during
degradation, in accordance with IAEA Safety Series No. 30 (IAEA, 1981).
Floors, walls, and ceilings should have a smooth, impervious, and seamless finish.
The junction between the floor and walls should be covered, and corners should be
rounded. Light fixtures should be designed to be sealed flush with the ceiling
surface to minimize horizontal surfaces and prevent entry of contamination into the
fixtures in accordance with IAEA Safety Series No. 30 (IAEA, 1981). Protective
coatings (e.g., paint) used in radiation areas should meet the criteria in ANSI N512-
1974, Protective Coatings (Paints) for the Nuclear Industry (ANSI, 1974b).
An emergency lighting system should be provided in radiation areas to facilitate
egress in emergencies. The emergency lighting should meet the requirements of the
latest version of NFPA 101 (NFPA, 1985).
The plutonium process area is typically a group of contiguous rooms that contain
all operations involving plutonium, including processing, shipping, receiving,
storage, and waste-handling. To the maximum extent practicable, the facility