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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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External Dose Reduction - doe-std-1128-98_ch10185


DOE-STD-1128-98
Figure 6.5.
Neutron Energy Spectra as Measured by the Multisphere Spectrometer a
50 cm from Plutonium Metal, PuO2, and PuF4 Sources
The liquid scintillator spectrometer has the advantage that it is very
sensitive and can operate at low dose rates. It is useful over an energy
range extending from about 1 MeV to 20 MeV. Neutron dose equivalent
can be calculated from the measured spectra using the conversion factors
given in the Implementation Guide, External Dosimetry Program (DOE,
1999e). The dose equivalents calculated from liquid scintillator
measurements are reasonably accurate (10% to 20%) for lightly
moderated plutonium spectra. Because of the lower energy cut-off of
liquid scintillator spectrometers, they may not provide accurate dose
equivalent values outside heavily shielded facilities, such as plutonium
storage vaults with thick concrete walls.
6.3.6.4 Proton Recoil and Other Spectrometers
There are a number of other spectrometer systems that are available that
have been used successfully for neutron spectral measurements in the
field. Of particular interest is a spectrometer employing five different
proton recoil proportional counters filled with gasses at different
pressures. Each counter measures a different portion of the neutron
spectrum, and quite accurate spectra can be obtained by "linking" all the
measurements together. Unfortunately, this type of spectrometer is quite
expensive, bulky, and difficult to use for workplace measurements.
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