-- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (USC, 1976a) - This act
authorizes the EPA and the States to regulate hazardous and solid wastes.
-- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
(CERCLA) (USC, 1980) and 40 CFR 300 (EPA, 1992c) - This act requires the
identification and cleanup of inactive hazardous waste sites by responsible
parties, and imposes certain response and reporting requirements for releases of
-- Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (USC, 1986) and 40
CFR 300 (EPA, 1992c).
Interagency agreements can also exist between DOE, EPA, state, and local
agencies (Daugherty, 1993). Any special arrangement agreed to as part of an
interagency agreement will need to be honored during the D&D activities.
10.1.2 Residual Radioactivity Levels
A primary concern in the D&D of any nuclear facility is the level of residual
this document is on occupational radiological protection. See Section 4.2.4 for
guidance on contamination monitoring in the workplace. Additional information on
acceptable residual levels may be found in the following sources. This list is not
inclusive and facilities must determine the applicable requirements. The U.S.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in Regulatory Guide 1.86, Termination of
Operating Licenses for Nuclear Reactors (AEC, 1974), and ANSI/HPS N13.12
(ANSI, 1999b), provide definitive values for acceptable surface contamination
levels for termination of operating licenses for nuclear reactors and for materials,
equipment, and facilities.
The EPA has been mandated by Congress to develop guidelines that will be
applicable to all nuclear facilities as well as to the release of formerly contaminated
or controlled radioactive facilities for unrestricted release. Such guidelines will
likely be based on the radiation dose to the maximum exposed member of the
general population. The maximum allowable annual dose has not yet been
determined, but values of 50, 10, 1, and 0.1 mrem/y are being considered by the
EPA as the "de facto de minimis" levels for the disposal of contaminated material.
Section 4 of DOE Order 5400.5, Ch. 2, Radiation Protection of the Public and
Environment (DOE, 1993c), provides the following DOE guidelines for cleanup of
residual radioactive material, management of the resulting wastes, and release of
property. The basic public dose limits for exposure to residual radioactive material
in addition to natural background exposures is a 100-mrem (1-mSv) effective dose
equivalent in a year. The effective dose equivalent in a year is the sum of the
effective dose equivalent from exposures to radiation sources external to the body
during the year plus the cumulative effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from
radionuclides taken into the body during the year.