Quantcast Table 2.4. Specific Activity Decay Heats of Selected Isotopes(a) - doe-std-1128-98_ch10021

 

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Table 2.3. Radioactive Decay Properties of Selected
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Neutron Yields and Spectra - doe-std-1128-98_ch10022


DOE-STD-1128-98
Table 2.4. Specific Activity Decay Heats of Selected Isotopes(a)
Isoptope
Half-Life
Specific Activity, Ci/G
Average Particle Energy
Decay Heat
Y
per Disintegration, MeV(b)
W/g(b)
α
α
Pu
2.851
53.4
5.75
18.2
236
α
α
Pu
87.7
17.1
5.49
.0567
238
α
α
239Pu
2.407 x 104
6.22 x 10-2
5.14
1.93 x 10-3
α
α
240Pu
6564
0.229
5.16
7.13 x 10-3
α+β
α
241Pu
14.35
2.52 x 10-3
5.27 x 10-3
3.29 x 10-3
β
103
3.733 x 105 α
α
Pu
3.93 x 10-3
4.90
1.16 x 10-4
242
α
α
232U
72.0
21.5
5.31
0.690
1.59 x 105  α
α
233U
9.75 x 10-3
4.72
2.84 x 10-4
2.45 x 105  α
α
234U
6.29 x 10-3
4.76
1.81 x 10-4
7.04 x 107  α
α
235U
2.17x10-6
4.24
6.02 x 10-6
2.34 x 107  α
α
236U
6.5 x 10-5
4.48
1.77 x 10-6
4.47 x 109  α
α
238U
3.38 x 10-7
4.18
8.58 x 10-9
2.14 x 106  α
α
237Np
7.08 x 10-4
4.76
2.08 x 10-5
α
α
241Am
432.2
3.43
5.37
0.115
(a) Data from ICRP 38 (1983).
(b) Includes atomic recoil and low-energy X-ray production.
and decay heats for selected isotopes and decay products are given in Table
2.4. Kilogram quantities of 239Pu or gram quantities of 238Pu can generate
enough heat to melt plastic bags. Sources of 238Pu must be handled with
insulated gloves, and special precautions must be taken to ensure a good
thermal heat sink during shipping and storage. (See also Section 2.5.1, "Self-
The plutonium isotopes emit relatively few high-energy gamma rays, so even
kilogram quantities can be processed without serious gamma-exposure
problems. Because of the high density of plutonium, many gamma rays are
self-absorbed. In some instances, the decay products may become significant in
radiation protection and metallurgy. For instance, the isotope 236Pu often
constitutes less than 1% of plutonium and is often ignored in dose calculations.
However, if the plutonium is shielded by greater than 1 cm of lead or steel, the
decay products of 236Pu may be the largest contributors to exposure. The decay
product 208Tl emits a highly penetrating gamma ray with an energy of 2.615
MeV. In plutonium that contains a few weight percent 241Pu, the 241Am decay
product is important because it emits a large number of 60-keV photons, which
can be a significant source of exposure to the hands and forearms when
handling plutonium in gloveboxes.
2-7


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