Quantcast Table 2.7. Common Biokinetic Models for Plutonium and Americum - doe-std-1128-98_ch10034

 

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Transfer to the Fetus cont'd - doe-std-1128-98_ch10033
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Self-Heating - doe-std-1128-98_ch10035


DOE-STD-1128-98
Table 2.7. Common Biokinetic Models for Plutonium and Americum
Model Parameter
ICRP 30, Part 1
ICRP 48
ICRP 30, Part 4
Metobolic Distribution(a)
F
T
F
T
F
T
Bone Surfaces
0.45
100 y
0.50
50 y
0.45
50y
Liver
0.45
40 y
0.30
20 y
0.45
20 y
Gonads(b)
3.5 x 10-4 α
3.5 x 10-4 α
3.5 x 10-4 α
Male
1.1 x 10-4 α
1.1 x 10-4 α
1.1 x 10-4 α
Female
GI Tract Absorbtion Factor
Ox Oxides
10-5
10-5
10-5
Pu nitrates
n.a. (c)
10-4
10-4
Pu-others
10-4
10-3
10-3
Am-(any)
5 x 10-4
10-3
10-3
Inhalation Class
Po Oxides
Y
Y
Y
Pu-others
W
W
W
Am-(any)
W
W
W
(a)
F is the fraction of plutonium reaching the bloodstream that is translocated to the organ of concern.
T is the retention (or clearance) half-time in the organ of concern.
(b)
Plutonium is assumed to be uniformly concentrated in male and female gonadal tissue where it is
permanently retained. The deposition fractions are derived, based on the relative mass of the
reference male and female tissues.
(c)
n.a. = not specifically addressed.
2.5
RADIATION EFFECTS ON MATERIALS
The following sections discuss, in order, self-heating and the various effects of radiolysis.
Radioactive decay, particularly alpha decay, can and does affect operations in plutonium
purification processes. The change in emphasis from plutonium production to waste
cleanup, environmental restoration, and the retirement of nuclear weapons will present
favorable circumstances for cumulative radiolytic effects, especially in the stabilization
processes and the final storage form.
Self-heating and helium retention and release are also included in this section since they
too are part of the end result of the alpha decay process. Neutron production from the
alpha-neutron reaction is discussed in Section 6.0. The degree of all these effects depends
on the plutonium isotopic composition and the americium impurity level. Table 2.8 lists
potential hazards or damage to materials from exposure to radiation.
2-20


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