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Measured Gamma Dose Rates - doe-std-1128-98_ch10159
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Table 6.5. Gamma Dose Rates Along an Arm Phantom in Contact with a Steel Can Containing 1 kg of Plutonium Dioxide in an Uncontaminated Glove Box - doe-std-1128-98_ch10161


DOE-STD-1128-98
The data shown in Table 6.5 are the average dose rates measured by
three TLD-700s with the indicated one standard deviation in the
measured values. As one would expect, the palm and fingers had the
highest dose rates, approximately 300 mrad/h; the lowest dose rates of 1
mrad/h were measured at the top of the arm. Because the plutonium was
"infinitely thick" and lower-energy photons were removed by the
shielding provided by the steel can, the dose rates in the lead-loaded
glove were only slightly lower than those in the Neoprene glove. The can
of plutonium was removed, and the gloves dusted with high-exposure
plutonium with an isotopic composition similar to that given in Table
6.4. The arm phantom was inserted into 20-mil Neoprene and 37-mil
lead-loaded Neoprene gloves; the dose rates measured with TLDs are
shown in Table 6.6.
Table 6.4.
Isotopic Composition of the Plutonium Used in the Extremity Dosimetry
Measurements
Isotope
Weight Percent
Pu
0.000003
236
238Pu
0.58
239Pu
72.1
240Pu
19.15
241Pu
6.29
242Pu
1.88
241Am
0.02
As expected, the highest dose rates were recorded on the hand, wrist and
forearm, where the most PUO2 dust had accumulated, and the lowest
dose rates were on the upper arm and humerus. For thin dust layers, the
dose rates inside the lead-loaded glove were generally much lower,
typically a factor of 4 to 5 times less than the dose rates inside the
Neoprene glove. The lead-loaded glove provided significantly better
shielding for the 60-KeV photons from 241Am and the L x-rays from
plutonium, which were responsible for much of the dose. In these
examples, the dose rates from the contaminated glove were about 10% of
those from the 1 kg of plutonium dioxide inside the steel can. Additional
experiments with 25% PuO2- 75% normal UO2 showed that dose rates
increased as dust loadings increased with use; the dose rates on the hand
and forearm increased to levels of about 30 mrem/h to 20 mrem/h,
respectively.
6-8


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