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In Vivo Count Results - doe-std-1128-98_ch10136
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DOE Standard Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiological Protection In Plutonium Facilities
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Fecal Sample Results - doe-std-1128-98_ch10138


DOE-STD-1128-98
In vivo wound counting for plutonium or americium is usually one facet of special
bioassay following a wound. While a portable alpha survey meter may show if
surface contamination is present at the wound site or contamination of the wounding
object, alpha detectors are not capable of measuring imbedded activity or activity
masked by blood or serum. Thus, plutonium and americium facilities should have
available a wound counter utilizing a thin sodium iodide or semi-conductor (e.g.,
planar germanium) detector. Such detectors are capable of measuring the low-energy
photons emitted from plutonium and americium. The ability to accurately quantify
wound activity is highly variable, depending on the calibration of the equipment and
how deeply imbedded material is in the wound. If the object causing a wound and
blood smears taken at the time of a wound show no detectable activity, then a wound
count also showing no detectable activity is probably sufficient to rule out an intake.
If the wounding object or the blood smears show detectable activity, special urine
samples should be obtained regardless of the wound count result. In this latter
circumstance, lack of detectable activity on a wound count could be attributable to
deeply imbedded material at the wound site or to rapid transportation of material
from the wound to the systemic compartment.
In growth of 241Am from 241Pu in plutonium mixtures can also significantly impact in
vivo data interpretation. Rather than decreasing with time, 241Am results can increase
without additional intake. This circumstance is particularly likely if dealing with
residual activity bound up in wound sites, but may also be observed by in vivo chest
or skeleton counting. A method to evaluate 241Am in growth is described is Section
5.8.4.
5.7.2
Urine Sample Results
Detection of plutonium or americium activity in a routine or special urine sample
using commonly available radiochemical measurement techniques should be
investigated as a potential intake. A data review should be made to assure that the
sample result was correctly determined, and batch QC sample data should be
verified.
If the result is near the Lc, it is possible that statistical fluctuation of the measurement
process could account for the apparent detection. Recounting the final sample
preparation once or twice can be a helpful technique to verify a result or classify it as
a false-positive. If the first recount also detects the analyte, it can be concluded that
the sample does contain the analyte (the likelihood of two consecutive false positives
at a 5% type I error per measurement is 0.0025, or 0.25 %.) If the first recount does
not detect the analyte, a second recount can be performed as a tie-breaker.
An investigation should be initiated for any abnormal plutonium or americium
urinalysis result. "Abnormal" for a person with no prior history of intake should be
interpreted as any detectable activity.
5-27


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