monitoring instrumentation, certain processing equipment, and any other
essential building systems identified during safety analysis.
Sensitive safety equipment should be tested to verify that it will remain
operable during the switch-over and after enduring the electrical
Non-critical uses of emergency power should be avoided.
Water-storage tanks with multiple or backup supplies should be provided to
simultaneously supply water for fire protection, processing, and drinking.
The design of the water-supply system shall provide water for firefighting and
automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with the DOE Order 420.1 (DOE,
1995c) and Factory Mutual and National Fire Protection Association Standards.
The fire-protection water supply and distribution design required for critical item
protection should ensure the continuity of protection in the event of postulated
Potable water should be distributed to drinking fountains, eyewash fountains,
showers, emergency showers, lavatories, and non-contaminated laboratories. Raw
water may be used in toilets and urinals. The potable water system shall be
protected against contamination (40 CFR 141 and 142 (EPA, 1992a)). Water mains
should not pass through process or controlled areas. Branch lines may be permitted
in process areas for safety showers and fire-protection sprinkler systems only.
The facility water system preferably should be isolated from primary water mains
by an air gap to prevent any possibility of contamination of public water supplies.
If an air gap is not possible, reduced-pressure type of backflow prevention devices
meeting the requirements of the American Water Works Association C506-78-
1983 (AWWA, 1983) should be used. Process water supplied to the process and
controlled areas must be isolated from the potable water system. Cross-connections
should not be permitted.
Each area in the plant building shall be equipped with fire-detection devices that
are best suited for that area (NFPA National Fire Codes 71 and 72A through 72D
(NFPA latest revisions) (NFPA, 1985)). All equipment should be approved by a
recognized testing laboratory. The spacing, sensitivity, and location of the detectors
should be given careful consideration to ensure rapid response.
All fire detectors and/or automatic fire-suppression systems should be connected to
fire alarm annunciators. The annunciator system should be sufficiently subdivided
to identify the location of a fire.
Fuels and combustible materials should be stored at a central facility that is remote
from the plutonium-processing building(s). Piped natural gas should not be
provided to plutonium process or storage areas. Separate bottled gas systems
should be provided where required.