Inadequate clothing, and
Poor worker health.
The physical conditions that effect cold exposure disorders or conditions are the same as those
associated with heat disorders or conditions, such as physical fitness, alcohol or drug use, and
6.3.1. Control Measures
The presence of dead air space between the warm body and clothing and the outside air is
essential. Many layers of relatively light clothing with an outer shell of windproof material
maintains body temperature much better than a single heavy outer garment worn over ordinary
indoor clothing. The more air cells each clothing layer has, the more efficient it insulates against
body heat loss. Clothing also needs to allow some venting of perspiration. In addition to
adequate clothing, whenever possible, full use should be made of windbreaks and heat tents.
Table 6-3 gives the recommended time limits for working in various low temperature ranges.
Maximum Daily Time Limits for Exposure at Low Temperatures
Maximum Daily Exposure
0 to -18
30 to 0
No limit, providing that the person is properly clothed.
-18 to -34
0 to -30
Total work time: 4 hours. Alternate 1 hour in and 1 hour out of the low-
-34 to -57
-30 to -70
Two periods of 30 minutes each at least 4 hours apart. Total low
temperature work time allowed is 1 hour.
-57 to -73
-70 to -100
Maximum permissible work time is 5 minutes during an 8-hour working
day. At these extreme temperatures, completely enclosed headgear,
equipped with a breathing tube running under the clothing and down the
leg to preheat the air, is recommended.
6.3.2. Physiological Monitoring
Early recognition of the symptoms of cold exposure stress is essential in preventing serious or
permanent disorders or conditions. Workers and managers involved in cold weather operations
should be adequately trained to recognize the following conditions and related symptoms: