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DOE-EM-STD-5503-94
the use, care, limitations, and operating characteristics of air monitoring instruments. These
individuals should also be responsible for the maintenance and calibration of all air monitoring
equipment.
Calibrations should be in accordance with methods indicated in NIOSH's Manual of Analytical
Methods (latest edition), EPA methods, and/or methods recommended by the equipment
manufacturer. Maintenance of instruments should be in accordance with methods recommended
by the equipment manufacturer or by the SSHO.
The EPA methods to be used for ambient air monitoring should be specified, as well as the use of
NIOSH methods for worker exposure monitoring/sampling. The use of analytical laboratories
accredited by EPA and/or the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), should be
specified. Samples collected using NIOSH methods should be analyzed only by laboratories
currently accredited by the AIHA. When radiological samples are to be analyzed, laboratories
with appropriate accreditation should be used.
The following sections discuss in more detail the detection principle, limitations, and features of
instruments which should be utilized during environmental restoration projects. For selection of
all instruments, a number of factors should be considered such as:
Accuracy,
Mobility,
Potential interferences on performance,
Alarms,
Remote sensing,
Battery life,
Calibration required,
Explosion proofing, and
Sampling range.
8.4.1. Direct-Reading Monitoring Instruments
Unlike time-integrated sampling devices, which are used to collect samples for subsequent
analysis in a laboratory, direct-reading instruments (the term direct-reading is used
synonymously for the term real-time) provide information at the time of sampling, thus enabling
rapid decision-making. Data obtained from direct-reading monitors can often be used to assure
proper selection of personnel protection equipment, engineering controls and work practices. The
instruments can often provide the trained and experienced user the capability to determine if site
personnel are potentially exposed to concentrations which exceed exposure limits or action levels
for specific hazardous materials.
Direct-reading monitors can be useful in identifying oxygen deficient atmospheres, IDLH
conditions, toxic levels of airborne contaminants, flammable atmospheres, and radioactive
8-5


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