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DOE-EM-STD-5503-94
11.3.4. Emergency Communications
Communications systems to be used for internal and external communications during an
emergency should be described including types and combinations of systems, their use, and back-
up systems.
An internal network of communications should be developed to alert workers to danger, convey
safety information, and maintain site control. Any effective system or combination of systems
may be employed. External communications systems and procedures should be clear and
accessible to all workers. All personnel should be familiar with the protocol for communication
systems.
11.4. EMERGENCY RECOGNITION AND PREVENTION
A system to alert personnel to potentially hazardous situations should be established. Site
briefings should be held as necessary to brief all employees of new developments, tasks, and
hazards associated with work at the site. These briefings should include:
Tasks to be performed;
Specific chemical and physical hazards that may be encountered, including their effects,
how to recognize symptoms or monitor them, concentration limits, or other danger
signals;
Transportation routes along which hazardous substances move;
Additional hazards as a direct result of site activities, as well as prevention and control
techniques/mechanisms; and
Emergency procedures.
Personnel should be familiar with techniques of hazard recognition from pre-assignment training
and site-specific briefings.
Personnel should also be knowledgeable of the fire hazards associated with the materials and
processes to which they are exposed. Details on fire prevention planning are provided in Chapter
12, of this guidance document.
11.5. SAFE DISTANCES AND PLACES OF REFUGE
The requirements for determining safe distances and places of refuge at a specific site should be
established. This section should consider the amount and type of substance(s) at the site as well
as the potential impact on workers and the public. Safe distances should be estimated based on
emergency scenarios developed during the pre-planning phase. Actual safe distances can only be
established at the time of an emergency, based on a combination of site-specific and incident-
specific factors. Some factors that may need to be considered are:
11-5


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