Removing of unnecessary debris;
Guarding exposed electrical wiring, or sharp or protruding objects;
Securing objects near elevated surfaces and combustible materials; and
Eliminating slippery surfaces, dangerous flooring, and uneven terrain.
Hazards that cannot be readily eliminated should be properly controlled through engineering
and/or administrative means. The primary objective of these controls is to reduce worker
exposure to safe levels, thereby avoiding the need for PPE.
3.4.1. Engineering Controls
Hazards subject to engineering controls generally include those which present a high potential
for illness or injury to workers. These hazards present levels of concern in the following areas:
Frequency of hazard (i.e., how often such a hazard is likely to occur at the work site);
Effect of hazard (i.e., whether exposure to such a hazard would result in an injury or
Extent of injury or illness resulting from the hazard; and
Range of effect of the hazard.
Engineering controls, such as radiation shielding, are intended to address major hazards and are
the preferred control method. These controls consist primarily of systems which are necessary to
reduce worker exposure and prevent propagation of contaminants to "clean" areas. Other
examples of engineered controls include process enclosures maintained at negative pressure with
High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered ventilation and surface water drainage systems.
Protection of the public though engineered controls should also take into consideration the safety
and health of workers. For example, when designing or selecting systems for mitigating
dispersal of contaminants to outside areas, attention should also be given to effects on workers
within the contaminated zone. Area enclosures can concentrate airborne contaminants if not
3.4.2. Administrative Controls
The purpose of administrative controls is to encourage safe work practices. This is first
accomplished by controlling the movement of personnel within hazardous areas. Establishment
and demarkation of exclusion areas and physical access controls will prevent workers from
unnecessarily entering hazardous areas. These controls should also include operating procedures
and training programs which address safety precautions to be followed by workers when working
in hazardous areas. Workers should be certified for the particular equipment they are operating.
It should be noted that some standards prohibit the use of administrative controls as a means for
controlling a hazard.