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DOE-EM-STD-5503-94
6.2.2. Training
Worker training is an essential element of an effective temperature extreme program. Workers
who are able to identify the symptoms of early heat stress will be able to prevent heat related
disorders or conditions and possible death to themselves and their fellow workers. Workers
should be trained to identify the following symptoms:
Heat Rash - Caused by continuous exposure to heat or humid air. Can be recognized by
the occurrence of small red pimples on the skin. Typically found in sensitive areas of the
body where the potential for rubbing can occur (e.g., underarm, groin area).
Heat Cramps - Caused by heavy sweating and inadequate electrolyte replacement. Signs
to look for include muscle spasms and pain in the extremities, such as hands and feet, and
in the abdomen.
Heat Exhaustion - Caused by increased stress on various parts of the body, including
inadequate blood circulation due to cardiovascular insufficiency or dehydration. Signs to
look for include:
Pale, cool, moist skin;
Heavy sweating;
Dizziness;
Nausea; and
Fainting.
Heat Stroke - This is the most serious of all temperature related disorders or conditions
since temperature regulation fails and the body temperature rises to critical levels.
Immediate action should be taken to cool the body before serious injury or death occurs.
Competent medical help should be obtained. Signs to look for include:
Red, hot, usually dry skin;
Lack of or reduced perspiration;
Nausea;
Dizziness and confusion; and
In extreme situations, coma.
6.3. COLD EXPOSURE
Exposure to cold temperatures increases the likelihood and potential for worker disorders or
conditions that could result in injury or illness. Extreme low temperatures may not be the only
element necessary to create the potential for cold exposure disorders or conditions; strong wind
accompanied by cold temperatures can lead to these types of disorders or conditions.
6-4


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