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Module Introduction - hdbk-1130-98_ch10051
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Table 1-1 Basic Particles - hdbk-1130-98_ch10053


DOE-HDBK-1130-98
Module 1: Radiological Fundamentals
Instructor's Notes
II.
MODULE OUTLINE
A.
Atomic Structure
1.
The basic unit of matter is the atom. The three basic particles
of the atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons. The central
portion of the atom is the nucleus. The nucleus consists of
protons and neutrons. Electrons orbit the nucleus.
EO1 Identify the three basic
particles of an atom.
a.
Protons
1) Protons are located in the nucleus of the atom.
2) Protons have a positive electrical charge.
3) The number of protons in the nucleus determines the element.
(Optional)
Insert diagram of the atom.
Have students label the
three basic particles.
b.
Neutrons
1) Neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom.
2) Neutrons have no electrical charge.
3) Atoms of the same element have the same number of protons,
but can have a different number of neutrons.
4) Atoms which have the same number of protons but different
numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
NOTE: Common notation for describing isotopes is to list the
atomic symbol for an element followed by its mass number. The
mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons. For example,
tritium has 1 proton and 2 neutrons, and is denoted as H-3.
5) Isotopes have the same chemical properties; however, the
nuclear properties can be quite different.
4


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