Module 1: Radiological Fundamentals
b. Is defined for any material.
c. Applies to all types of radiation.
d. Does not take into account the potential effect that different
types of radiation have on the body.
e. 1 rad = 1000 millirad (mrad).
3. Rem (Roentgen equivalent man)
a. A unit for measuring dose equivalence.
b. Is the most commonly used unit.
c. Pertains to the human body.
d. Takes into account the energy absorbed (dose) and the
biological effect on the body due to the different types of
The Quality Factor (QF) is used as a multiplier to reflect the
relative amount of biological damage caused by the same
amount of energy deposited in cells by the different types of
ionizing radiation. Rem = rad x QF.
= 2-11(depending on the energy)
e. 1 rem = 1,000 millirem (mrem).
EO8 Convert rem to
millirem and millirem to
4. Radiation dose and dose rate
a. Radiation dose rate is the dose per time.
1) Radiation dose rate = dose/time.
2) Radiation dose equivalent rate = mrem/hr.