Radiological Training for Accelerator Facilities
Cryostat: An instrument or device that maintains low temperature for superconducting magnets.
Cyclotron: A cyclic accelerator in which the charged particles spiral outward from the center of the
machine as they gain energy.
Decommissioning: The process of closing and securing a nuclear facility, or nuclear materials storage
facility, so as to provide adequate protection from radiation exposure and to isolate radioactive
contamination from the human environment.
Depleted Uranium: Uranium having a percentage of uranium-235 smaller than the 0.7% found in natural
Derived Air Concentration (DAC): The airborne concentration that equals the ALI divided by the volume
of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2,000 hours (assuming a breathing volume of
Detector: Any device that can detect the presence of an energetic electromagnetic radiation particle or
nuclear fragment and measure one or more of its properties.
Electromagnetic Radiation: A traveling wave motion resulting from changing electric or magnetic
fields. Familiar electromagnetic radiations range from X-rays and gamma rays of short wavelength,
through the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions, radar and radio waves of relatively long wavelength.
Enclosed Beam: All possible X-ray beam paths are fully contained in protective enclosures so that no
part of the body can intercept the beam during normal operation.
Electron volt: A unit of energy equivalent to the energy gained by an electron in passing through a
potential difference of one volt.
Exclusion Area: Any area to which access is prohibited for the purposes of protection of individuals.