Radiological Training for Accelerator Facilities
Radiation: Radiation refers to the emission and propagation of waves or particles through matter or
space. Matter absorbs energy from radiation. In a microwave oven, for example, food absorbs energy
from microwave radiation and is heated and cooked.
Radiation alarm system: A system providing notification, including activation of a radiation warning
system, that a radiation condition exists that exceeds preset limits. An alarm system may initiate
Radiation warning light: A system that alerts personnel to a potential or actual change in the radiation
level in a working environment. A warning system does not initiate mitigating actions.
Radioactivation or Activation: The process of producing a radioactive material by bombardment with
neutrons, protons, or other nuclear particles.
Redundancy: Duplication or repetition of elements in electronic or mechanical equipment to provide
alternative functional channels in case of failure.
Scattered Radiation: Radiation that, during passage through matter, has been deviated in direction. It
may have been modified also by a decrease in energy.
Scram switch: An interlock that is intended for emergency use only. Scram switches are usually placed
within exclusion areas where personnel may be caught during pre-start-up or actual operations.
Search: (This is commonly referred to as a sweep.) A physical inspection carried out under controlled
conditions to ensure that no personnel are left inside exclusion areas.
Septa: An area associated with an accelerator beam line where the beam is split into two or more beams,
normally through the use of magnets. This area is prone to radioactivation due to the interaction of the
beam with structural materials.