Radiological Training for Accelerator Facilities
Sanitary sewer: Disposal through the sanitary sewer. This may be regulated by
several agencies, such as DOE, NRC, EPA, and State and local water pollution
control boards. Their regulations will set concentration limits and, perhaps, annual
Evaporation: The water can be evaporated in engineered evaporation systems.
Solidification: The water can be used to make concrete for solidifying other liquid
wastes for disposal.
Decay: Water from a small-volume, high concentration system could be transferred
to a large-volume low concentration system where it can decay safely.
Ion exchange resins and filters: These are used to remove impurities from
recirculating cooling water systems and can accumulate radionuclides such as Be-7,
Na-22, Mn-54, and Co-60.
Radioactive waste can be generated by maintenance and modification of beamline
components. Waste from this source may consist of:
Compactables: Compactables such as rags, anti-contamination clothing, surface
Tools, equipment, components: Items that are no longer of use. These may consist
of materials contaminated by the transfer of activated radioactive material to their
surface or items that are radioactivated from being in the beamline.
Soils surrounding buried beam dumps may become activated. These can become
classified as radioactive waste when facilities are modified or decommissioned.