Radiological Safety Traning for Uranium Facilities
Module 102 - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle
be classified as low-level waste provided the concentration of transuranic
activity is less than 100 nCi/g." LLW could be in the form of liquids, solids, or
gasses. Liquid waste is usually processed to remove radioactive material and
then recycled or disposed.
Solids may be volume-reduced by incineration or compaction. Soluble forms in
liquid may be solidified to isolate radioactive contents.
Gases are either changed to a solid form and disposed of as a solid or
compressed and stored as gases. These gases may be released after sufficient
time has elapsed for decay of the radioactive component of the gas.
High-level waste (HLW) is defined in DOE Order 5820.2a as "The highly
radioactive waste material that results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear
fuel, including liquid waste produced directly in reprocessing and any solid
waste derived from the liquid, that contains a combination of transuranic waste
and fission products in concentrations requiring permanent isolation.
HLW comes primarily from the reprocessing of spent fuel. It is typically in
liquid form, and it is collected and stored in tanks. The liquid waste is then
solidified (stabilized) for disposal. All HLW is ultimately to be disposed of by
Decontamination and Decommissioning of Uranium Facilities
Uranium and its byproducts from the nuclear fuel cycle may present health risks due to
radioactivity or chemical properties. Past and present DOE uranium facilities and their
surrounding areas may contain contamination fr om uranium or its byproducts. DOE
recognizes that they have a responsibility to restore these potentially contaminated