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Gamma and X-Ray External Dose - hdbk1113cn10134
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Radiological Safety Training for Uranium Facilities - index
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General External Dose Control Practices - hdbk1113cn10136


DOE-HDBK-1113-98
Radiological Safety Traning for Uranium Facilities
Module 103 - External Dose Control
F.
External Dose Measurements
The radiation from uranium that affects external dose includes beta, gamma, X-ray and neutron
irradiation. An effective external exposure control program for uranium requires a variety of
radiation d etection in struments tha t are respons ive to these fo rms of radiati on. Radiation surveys
should be performed on a routine basis and during events, tasks, procedures, or situations that are
likely to cause radiological conditions to change. There are two general categories of
measurement used for external exposure associateed with uranium, portable survey instruments
and personnel dosimeters.
Gamma radiation from uranium is normally not the controlling problem. For example, the
contact beta radiation field from depleted uranium is approximately 240 millirem per hour, while
the cont act gamma ra diatio n field i s less th an 10 mill irem per h our. Howe ver, sign ifican t gamma
fields can exist in areas where large quantities of uranium are stored, such as a storage area for
uranium contaminated soil. The accuracy and precision of survey instruments used for
measurement of beta radiation fields depend on many factors which must be addressed, such as
energy response and geometry factors. Accordingly, these surveys are typically conducted by
Radiological Control personnel. Neutron fields from enriched uranium fluoride compounds can
also add to this area of concern. Depending on the magnitude of neutron fields generated,
periodic neutron dose rate measurements are made, typically by Radiological Control personnel.
Personnel dosimeters produce the data which becomes the formal or "legal" record of personnel
exposure, thermoluminescent dosimeters, used in most DOE uranium facilities, provides the most
accurate and precise means of measuring doses received by workers.
G.
External Dose Reduction and Control Techniques
1.
External Dose Control Program
The primary purpose of an external dose control program is to control dose to the
individual radiation worker to below regulatory limits and administrative levels and
ensuring that doses are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). In all cases at
21


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