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Module 104 Internal Dose Control - hdbk1113cn10077
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Radiological Safety Training for Uranium Facilities - index
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Indirect or In Vitro Measurement - hdbk1113cn10079


DOE-HDBK-1113-98
Module 104 Internal Dose Control
Lesson Plan
Instructor's Notes
The amount of uranium retained in the lungs depends a
great deal on the size of the particle breathed. The smallest
particles tend to be exhaled or absorbed into the
bloodstream, while the largest particles are usually removed
before they re ach the lung. Ura nium retained in the lungs
may remain there or be absorbed into the bloodstream. Part
of the uranium passing through the digestive tract may also
be absorbed in the bloodstream. Uranium in the
bloodstream is either transferred to various organs or
excreted via the urine.
The enrichment of the uranium in its  235U isotope als o plays
a role in determining whether the radiological or the
chemical effects are the limiting factor. For acute
exposures, chemical toxicity is limiting up to 39%
enrichment. Beyond 39%, the effective dose equivalent
becomes limiting. For chronic exposures, chemical toxicity
is more limiting up to 1.3% enrichment. Beyond 1.3%, the
effective do se equivalent becomes limitin g.
Highlight the internal exposure
C.
Internal Dose Measurements
measurements used at your
facility.
Once in the body, the presence of uranium can be detected
using indirect radioactivity measurements, direct
radioactivity measurements, or both.
At one time, it was not possible to detect internal uptakes of
uranium or certain other radioactive materials at levels
below the point at which the annual limit for exposure (5
rem) was received. Any measurable intake of uranium was
41


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