In addition, the D&D plan designer should investigate regulatory compliance
issues. Some of these issues have various programmatic impacts, such as
time constraints and procedural issues.
Environmental remediation (ER) projects are those that generally involve
cleanup of soils or waste sites that are not within structures. As such, the work
consists mostly of bulk moving and treating of materials. An example of this
type of work is the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program.
D&D projects are usually thought of in the context of work within structures. In
either case, these projects often involve working with hazards that may not be
completely characterized. Therefore, planning the project to minimize the work
hazards is an essential part of project design. Further guidance is provided in
DOE/EM-0142P, DOE Decommissioning Handbook, and DOE/EM-0246,
Decommissioning Resource Manual.
Decommissioning and Decontamination . For cleanup activities, design
criteria focus on mitigating hazard consequences that cannot be reduced
further or eliminated before starting the cleanup. The basic safety objectives of
protecting workers, onsite employees, and the public apply and form the basis
for designing control features to mitigate the potential hazard consequences.
Hazard mitigation actions, such as applying a fixative to loose surface
contaminants, will alter the form and decrease the dispersible fraction of
hazardous dust. Sequencing the operation to specific rooms or building areas
(segmenting) will limit the operational inventory. Limiting the number of
simultaneous segmented cleanup operations to decrease complexity and avoid
compounding hazards will also decrease the potential hazard consequences.
Removing significant sources of inventory early in the operation will limit the
time during which the hazard needs to be considered and will limit the releases
from subsequent common cause or propagation events.