grouping or compartmentalizing process equipment to form units that can
isolate the process inventory into modular units;
the capability to detect leakage from process equipment; and
selection of the method (e.g., manual, remote-manual, or automatic) of
performing corrective actions (e.g., process shutdown) according to the
potential hazards associated with a particular release.
Design features that should be considered for maintenance of the confinement
systems include the following:
the use of electrical equipment that precludes or minimizes the
introduction of an ignition source in flammable or potentially flammable
support and protection systems (such as fire protection systems) that do
not promote the failure of the principal confinement systems; and
provisions for sprinklers, water fog, or other suitable systems within the
secondary confinement to provide for rapid heat removal and minimum
pressurization of the process cell or canyon and to minimize the loading
of ventilation system filters with combustion products.
Process equipment should be designed to operate under process conditions that
prevent or minimize the potential for explosive chemical reactions (e.g., solvent
vapor explosions, nitrate-solvent reactions). Process system design should
provide for all fission product oxidation states expected during processing (e.g.,
suppression of the volatilization of ruthenium or the prevention of iodate
Systems should be provided to reduce the likelihood and consequences of
pressurizing a primary confinement component as a result of an accident.