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Summary - hdbk1132990157
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Design Considerations - index
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Environmental Remediation cont'd


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
Environmental Remediation . Specific performance objectives for ER
2.13.5
activities should address timing, cost, exposure control, confinement, worker
protection, and ALARA issues. Safety and operations then review the specific
work to identify methods that eliminate or reduce the existing hazards by
changing the hazards form, selecting a work sequence, or altering/eliminating
energy sources while ensuring the performance objectives are met. Each
hazard reduction method or combination of methods should be balanced
against the performance objectives so that the end result is a safe, efficient,
and effective operation. When existing hazards have been eliminated or
reduced to the extent possible, the safety and operations engineer(s) work
with the designer to develop design barriers to mitigate the impact of the
remaining hazard to acceptable levels while achieving the performance
objectives.
One of the major hazards of soil remediation activities is fugitive dust
generation (airborne contaminants) created by the cleanup activity, wind
action, or a combination of both. Large area sites can involve thousands of
curies of radioactivity (total quantity) when summed over the total soil volume
to be remediated (even though the concentration is microcuries or even
nanocuries per gram). The planning of contaminated soil site remediation
activities reduces the hazard by establishing a limit of inventory available for
release. Dividing the contaminated site into segments reduces the area,
thereby reducing the quantity of "contaminated dust" released per unit time.
Wetting the contaminated soil during cleanup activities effectively alters the
contaminant particle size, thus reducing fugitive dust generation. Conducting
cleanup activities during periods of low wind also reduces dust generation and
transport energy. The appropriate combination of methods to reduce the
hazards should be considered before considering design barriers that would
mitigate hazard consequences.
Another type of ER activity is the exhumation of previously buried or otherwise
disposed-of waste material. Limiting the amount of buried material removed
at any one time limits the hazards associated with the activity. This limits the
contaminant inventory available for accidental release.
I-142


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