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Environmental Remediation
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Design Considerations - index
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Vitrification


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
Confinement of hazardous particles can be achieved with systems varying
from general ground cover (soil cleanup) to a complex structure with
multistage ventilation (stationary cleanup "treatment" center). The
confinement system needed for a specific cleanup activity should consider the
work to be performed, the hazard, the complexity of the activity (multiple
activities simultaneously conducted at a single location), energies available,
and, if the energies are present continuously or only during actual work, the
cleanup rate (hazard decrease rate), and several other factors.
General soil cleanup releases are usually chronic rather than acute. For this
type of activity, wind and cleanup equipment movement provide the
predominant energy sources leading to the airborne dispersion of
contaminants. Barriers designed to inhibit the generation of dust (wetting or
fixatives) during operations and to separate the energy from the contaminants
(ground cover) during nonwork periods are among the simplest forms of
confinement.
Retrieval or recovery of buried waste has the potential for acute releases.
Accumulation of retrieved items and in some cases individual items can
contain sufficient materials to represent an accident hazard. Confinement for
this type of activity could involve a vented overpack, portable hot cell, or a tent
of plastic or metal construction with an associated ventilation system. Vented
overpacks and hot cells provide confinement for the unusual or anticipated
small percentage of packages that are uncharacteristic of the normal retrieved
items. Tent confinement provides control where packages may have lost their
integrity and pockets of contamination are possible or expected. Tents may
also be used as weather covers for normal operation and to provide
confinement only for accident conditions. The specific type of confinement
used depends on the method of recovery, the type of hazard, and the
confidence in the knowledge of inventory and package condition.
In cases where ER projects involve temporary structures for process
confinement, especially when potentially high-activity buried waste is involved,
some design considerations are common to both environmental restoration
I-143


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