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Vessel Erosion
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Design Considerations - index
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Design Considerations in High-Temperature Devices


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
feed material is supplied from the top. This feed material usually forms a " old
c
cap"on top of the molten glass, melting into the glass pool as it is heated by
convective currents rising from below. The melter feed will off-gas as the cold
cap dries out and heats and as volatile elements are driven out of the glass
itself. Off-gas will vary depending on the makeup of the feed material; it
should be accommodated and treated in some type of off-gas system. The
second chamber is a heated discharge cavity through which the molten glass
can flow into a canister.
Melter Life/Keeping Melters Hot/Not Cycling . Melter life is dependent
2.14.11
largely on how the melter is operated during its productive life. Operating
temperatures of vitrification melters range between 1050 and 1250 EC. These
temperatures present special design considerations for any metals used in
melter fabrication.
The melter is usually heated through infrared heaters in both melter
chambers. The heaters in the glass " ool"chamber are for startup only and
p
are shut down once the glass becomes molten and joule heating can be
activated. Melters should be brought up to operating temperature in a
controlled manner at an average heat-up rate of approximately 10 EC per hour.
Exact heat-up rates are a function of the materials used and will vary
accordingly. Refractories can be heated at much faster rates than the metals
(50EC per hour). Heat-up rates should be developed around stress/strain
curves plotted as a function of temperature for the specific metal used. Once
the operating temperature is reached, it is good operating practice to keep the
melter at temperature and eliminate thermal cycling. For maintenance or
other considerations that cannot be avoided, it will become necessary during
the melter operating life to reduce the temperature of the melter. Design
planning should accommodate these instances to minimize the number of
occurrences and the amount of cool down and reheat required. When
reheating, a slow, controlled reheat is recommended.
Glass Pouring is usually accomplished by air lift over a weir into a heated
discharge chamber with a pour trough that directs the flow into the top of a
canister.
I-149


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