Ceramic processes involve oxide powder that is finely divided. The exposure of
personnel to the powder inhalation hazard should be prevented. Processes that
handle bulk ceramics such as pellets are not dust-free operations and thus,
adequate ventilation should be provided.
Secondary Confinement System. The secondary confinement system
generally consists of the confinement barriers and associated ventilation
systems that surround or confine the operating areas that house the process
system and its primary confinement.
The operating area compartments should have sensors that detect releases of
hazardous materials from the primary confinement system and provide
appropriate alarms. Commensurate with the potential hazard, the use of
redundant sensors should be considered.
Penetrations of the operating area confinement barriers should be minimized.
When practical, equipment components not functionally required to operate
directly in the presence of radioactive materials should be located outside the
operating area compartments. Penetrations of the secondary confinement
should have positive seals to prevent the migration of contamination out of the
Each secondary confinement compartment should be supplied with ventilation
air from the building ventilation system and should have exhaust ventilation with
sufficient capacity to provide controlled ventilation flow as required in the event
of a credible breach in the operating compartment confinement barrier.
Pressure in the compartments should be negative with respect to the building
Irradiated Fissile Material Storage Facilities. The following provisions are
typical for an irradiated fissile material storage facility (IFMSF) confinement
system. The actual confinement system requirements for a specific IFMSF
should be determined on a case-by-case basis.