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Tertiary Confinement System - hdbk1132990055
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Design Considerations - index
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Airborne Radiation Control


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
systems, and provide adequate space for health physics activities. Primary
radiation protection should be provided through the use of engineered controls
(e.g., confinement, ventilation, remote handling, equipment layout, and
shielding). Additional protection for workers should be provided through an
effective radiation protection program that includes implementation of ALARA
concepts.
Additional considerations for specific facility types are included in this handbook;
see Section 2, Special Facilities and Activities.
Shielding Design . The shielding design basis should minimize exposure of an
1.3.2
individual worker to ALARA levels. 10 CFR 835.1002 provides requirements in
this area. In addition, appropriate shielding should be installed, if necessary, to
minimize nonpenetrating external radiation exposures to the skin and lens of the
eye of the worker. In most cases, the confinement barrier or process equipment
provides this shielding. Shielding and other radiation protection measures
should be provided for areas requiring intermittent access (e.g., to perform
preventive maintenance, change components, and adjust systems and
equipment). Straight-line penetration of shield walls should be avoided to
prevent radiation streaming. American National Standard (ANS) 6.4, Guidelines
on the Nuclear Analysis and Design of Concrete Radiation Shielding for Nuclear
Power Plants, provides guidance regarding the design of concrete radiation
shielding. ANS 6.4.2, Specification for Radiation Shielding Materials, provides
guidance regarding material specifications, where it provides a critical
confinement or structural function. American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318M,
Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, provides general
guidance for the structural design of concrete shielding. Straight-line
penetration of shield walls should be avoided to prevent radiation streaming.
Use of remote, shielded operations (i.e., through the use of handling equipment
such as remote manipulators and lead glass windows) should be considered
when exposures to extremities are anticipated to approach dose limits or where
contaminated puncture wounds could occur.
I-40


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