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Liquid Waste Confinement Systems
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Design Considerations - index
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High-Level Liquid Waste Confinement


DOE-HDBK-1132-99
TABLE I. Typical confinement provisions for RLWFs.
Material being
confined
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Soil barrier2 or
High-level liquid
Primary storage
Secondary storage
vessel1 or treatment
vessel1 or process
process building7
waste
system equipment3
cell
Storage vessel4 or
Dike or berm8 around
Low-level liquid
None
basin6 or treatment
waste
vessel or dike or berm
system5
Storage vessel4 or
Storage building7 or
Transuranic waste
None
treatment system5
process building7
1
Double-wall underground storage tanks and transfer piping are typically used to establish primary and
secondary confinement barriers. Primary storage tanks have condensers and/or filters in their vent
stream. The space between tanks is also ventilated and the exhaust is filtered.
2
Soil barrier is the engineered backfill material and natural setting surrounding the waste storage tanks.
A monitoring capability should be available to detect leakage from the storage tanks into the soil.
3
Typical treatment equipment includes waste calciner, evaporator, or waste fractionization equipment.
Treatment also occurs within the storage vessel (e.g., precipitation).
4
Single-wall storage tank.
5
Typical treatment concepts include volume reduction, immobilization of radioactive material, change of
composition, and removal of radioactive material from waste.
6
Interim storage in retention or settling basins.
7
With elevated threshold or other means of confinement.
8
When dikes or berms are considered, use of an impervious membrane should be considered to
minimize the cost of cleanup should a spill occur.
High-Level Liquid Waste Confinement . Design of a high-level liquid waste
confinement system should consider the following:
Tank and piping systems used for high-level liquid waste collection,
treatment, and storage should be of welded construction to the extent
practical. Construction materials should be selected to minimize all forms
of corrosion. Consideration should be given to stress relieving, welding
parameter controls, etc., depending on the materials used. Fatigue
failure should be a design consideration where temperature cycling is
required (i.e., evaporator systems, etc.).
Potential nonuniform distribution of decay heat caused by solids in the
waste should be considered in the design of storage tanks and any
I-78


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